When the Achaemenids extended their rule westward, they adopted this language as the vehicle for written communication between the various regions of the vast empire with its different peoples and languages. The use of a single official language, which modern scholarship has dubbed Official Aramaic or Imperial Aramaic, can be assumed to have greatly contributed to the astonishing success of the Achaemenids in holding their far-flung empire together for as long as they did. Imperial Aramaic was highly standardised; its orthography was based more on historical roots than any spoken dialect, and the inevitable influence of Old Persian gave the language a new clarity and robust flexibility. For centuries after the fall of the Achaemenid Empire in BCEImperial Aramaic or a similar dialect would remain an influence on the various native Iranian languages.
Kochangadi Synagogue in KochiIndia dated to After the Talmud, various regional literary dialects of Medieval Hebrew evolved. The most important is Tiberian Hebrew or Masoretic Hebrew, a local dialect of Tiberias in Galilee that became the standard for vocalizing the Hebrew Bible and thus still writing aramaic language wiki all other regional dialects of Hebrew.
This Tiberian Hebrew from the 7th to 10th century CE is sometimes called "Biblical Hebrew" because it is used to pronounce the Hebrew Bible; however, properly it should be distinguished from the historical Biblical Hebrew of the 6th century BCE, whose original pronunciation must be reconstructed.
Tiberian Hebrew incorporates the remarkable scholarship of the Masoretes from masoret meaning "tradition"who added vowel points and grammar points to the Hebrew letters to preserve much earlier features of Hebrew, for use in chanting the Hebrew Bible. The Masoretes inherited a biblical text whose letters were considered too sacred to be altered, so their markings were in the form of pointing in and around the letters.
The Syriac alphabetprecursor to the Arabic alphabetalso developed vowel pointing systems around this time. The Aleppo Codexa Hebrew Bible with the Masoretic pointing, was written in the 10th century, likely in Tiberiasand survives to this day. It is perhaps the most important Hebrew manuscript in existence.
During the Golden age of Jewish culture in Spainimportant work was done by grammarians in explaining the grammar and vocabulary of Biblical Hebrew; much of this was based on the work of the grammarians of Classical Arabic.
A great deal of poetry was written, by poets such as Dunash ben LabratSolomon ibn GabirolJudah ha-LeviMoses ibn Ezra and Abraham ibn Ezrain a "purified" Hebrew based on the work of these grammarians, and in Arabic quantitative or strophic meters.
This literary Hebrew was later used by Italian Jewish poets.
This is used in the translations made by the Ibn Tibbon family. Original Jewish philosophical works were usually written in Arabic. Another important influence was Maimonideswho developed a simple style based on Mishnaic Hebrew for use in his law code, the Mishneh Torah.
Subsequent rabbinic literature is written in a blend between this style and the Aramaized Rabbinic Hebrew of the Talmud. Hebrew persevered through the ages as the main language for written purposes by all Jewish communities around the world for a large range of uses—not only liturgy, but also poetry, philosophy, science and medicine, commerce, daily correspondence and contracts.
There have been many deviations from this generalization such as Bar Kokhba 's letters to his lieutenants, which were mostly in Aramaic,  and Maimonides ' writings, which were mostly in Arabic ;  but overall, Hebrew did not cease to be used for such purposes.
For example, the first Middle East printing press, in Safed modern Israelproduced a small number of books in Hebrew inwhich were then sold to the nearby Jewish world. Similarly, the Chofetz ChaimRabbi Yisrael Meir Kagan 's purpose in writing the Mishna Berurah was to "produce a work that could be studied daily so that Jews might know the proper procedures to follow minute by minute".
The work was nevertheless written in Talmudic Hebrew and Aramaic, since, "the ordinary Jew [of Eastern Europe] of a century ago, was fluent enough in this idiom to be able to follow the Mishna Berurah without any trouble.
Revival of the Hebrew language Hebrew has been revived several times as a literary language, most significantly by the Haskalah Enlightenment movement of early and midth-century Germany. In the early 19th century, a form of spoken Hebrew had emerged in the markets of Jerusalem between Jews of different linguistic backgrounds to communicate for commercial purposes.
This Hebrew dialect was to a certain extent a pidgin. Eventually, as a result of the local movement he created, but more significantly as a result of the new groups of immigrants known under the name of the Second Aliyahit replaced a score of languages spoken by Jews at that time.
Those languages were Jewish dialects of local languages, including Judaeo-Spanish also called "Judezmo" and "Ladino"YiddishJudeo-Arabicand Bukhori Tajikior local languages spoken in the Jewish diaspora such as RussianPersianand Arabic. The major result of the literary work of the Hebrew intellectuals along the 19th century was a lexical modernization of Hebrew.
New words and expressions were adapted as neologisms from the large corpus of Hebrew writings since the Hebrew Bible, or borrowed from Arabic mainly by Eliezer Ben-Yehuda and older Aramaic and Latin.
Many new words were either borrowed from or coined after European languages, especially English, Russian, German, and French. Modern Hebrew became an official language in British-ruled Palestine in along with English and Arabicand then in became an official language of the newly declared State of Israel.
Hebrew is the most widely spoken language in Israel today. Israeli Hebrew exhibits some features of Sephardic Hebrew from its local Jerusalemite tradition but adapts it with numerous neologisms, borrowed terms often technical from European languages and adopted terms often colloquial from Arabic.
Eliezer Ben-Yehuda The literary and narrative use of Hebrew was revived beginning with the Haskalah movement. Prominent poets were Hayim Nahman Bialik and Shaul Tchernichovsky ; there were also novels written in the language.
The revival of the Hebrew language as a mother tongue was initiated in the late 19th century by the efforts of Eliezer Ben-Yehuda. He joined the Jewish national movement and in immigrated to Palestinethen a part of the Ottoman Empire.Aramaic (Arāmāyā; square script אַרָמָיָא, Classical Syriac: ܐܪܡܝܐ ) is a language or group of languages belonging to the Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic language family.
More specifically, it is part of the Northwest Semitic group, which also includes the Canaanite languages such as Hebrew and Phoenician. The Syriac alphabet is a writing system primarily used to write the Syriac language since the 1st century AD.
It is one of the Semitic abjads descending from the Aramaic alphabet through the Palmyrene alphabet, and it shares similarities with the Phoenician, Hebrew, Arabic and . Aramaic is a language that is years old, or even more.
Words are made up from the 22 characters of the Aramaic alphabet. It is part of a group of languages called the Semitic tranceformingnlp.com group has Aramaic, Hebrew, Arabic and many other languages in it. Some old kingdoms used Aramaic language for business. 25 rows · The ancient Aramaic alphabet is adapted from the Phoenician alphabet and became distinct Languages: Aramaic, Hebrew, Syriac, Mandaic, Edomite.
The language of such Semitic glosses (and in general the language spoken by Jews in scenes from the New Testament) is often referred to as "Hebrew" in the text, although this term is often re-interpreted as referring to Aramaic instead and is rendered accordingly in recent tranceformingnlp.com to: Israel.
Assyrian / Neo-Assyrian is spoken by some 3 million people in parts of Iran, Iraq, Turkey and Syria, and among the Assyrian diaspora mainly in the USA and Europe. Assyrian is also known as Assyrian Neo-Aramaic.
The Assyrian language and it's dialects are usually classified as belonging to the.