Truelson Public managers of t he future will have to deal with the issue of whistleblowing. As the topic of dissent a t the workplace gains momentum, a number of analysts have begun to develop theoretical perspectives on whistleblowing a t the individual, organizational, and environmental levels of analysis. Concerns a t the individual level of analysis entail the moral dilemmas and conflicts of interest that face professionals who go public with a charge of organizational wrongdoing. Concerns a t the organizational level of analysis focus on such issues as organizational culture, loyalty, and dissent channels while study of the environmental level of analysis involves analysis of social accountability and regulation, as well as the formation of public interest support groups.
For more information, please contact digitalcommons kennesaw. Similarly, educational programs devoted to the subject must reflect thatflexibility.
The article begins by addressing the history. The analysis leads to an examination ofthe pedagogical questions necessary in curriculum development and design in public administration education in African historical context. It concludes with a briefdiscussion of the pedagogical questions raised that are to guide in designing public administration education discourse in the context ofAfrica.
This lack of accord makes public administration a much more difficult field of study than other more established disciplines. Whereas the fields of medicine, literature, and others are clearly, if broadly, defined, the realm of public administration has been notoriously difficult to pinpoint.
A multitude of views abound on what should be included in an effective model of public administration education, and for the most part, this dilemma stems from the uncertainty as to what public administration actually is. Some view it as strictly the execution of public policy.
Some view it as the provision of public goods and services. Others view it as a means to solve public problems. A more holistic, and perhaps more complete, view of public administration might take into account all of these views.
For the purposes of this paper, public administration as a practical theory is viewed as a three-faceted concept consisting of political, legal, and managerial viewpoints. In the pursuit of an adequate model of public administration education in the United States, it is the intention of this paper to explore the history of its evolution as well as the nature of its three-fold perspectives and provide a pedagogical framework for public administration education in the African context.
Perhaps some caveats are in order here. The African structures already suffer from colonial and neo-eolonial hangovers and this work is not intended to contribute to this burden. Yet, there is nothing inherently wrong for one.
From the first time a ruler or a group of rulers acted in the interest of those whom they were ruling, public administration was a reality. However, for some reason, only rarely has the concept of public administration been studied or even specifically mentioned outside of modern times.
When Moses, following the advice of his father-in-law, assigned the 12 men who were to become the founders of the 12 tribes of Israel to specific tasks, he was practicing public administration.
What Moses did then is what is considered today to be the integral part of the body of literature in organizational theory, such as division of labor, power and responsibility delegation, and authorization. Historically, political philosophers concentrated on the form and constitution of government, and relegated the actual policy administration to the realm of petty detail Wilson, This perspective has led to the famous politics-administration dichotomy debate.
Even in a young country such as the United States, administration organization, budget, management, planning, public service, civil service, and many other mainstay concepts of public administration do not appear in its constitution Stillman,p.
Only within the past years has public administration taken its rightful place in academia as a subject worthy of specific study. One of the reasons for such a late coming-of-age is the fact that public administration itself is so difficult to define. Except for simplified working defmitions, most theorists to this day agree to disagree about the true defmition of public administration because it is so problematic and tends to be a moving target.
Ostrom sees the problem as a crisis of confidence, and offers some discussion of the paradigm problem of public administration Ostrom, Dwight Waldo characterized this crisis as a crisis of identity, and is pessimistic about our ability to ever resolve the question.
For convenience, however, he does offer two suitable working definitions: The difficulty in defining public administration is that it includes so many dimensions of the governing elements that it does not fit neatly into any of the conceptual frameworks established thus far.
It is multidimensional and multidisciplinary. A good fit has not been found or agreed upon. The current "American model" basically includes the following values contained in its attributes Stillman,p. Yet, the list underscores the enigmatic nature of public administration. In some sense it has universal attributes.
In another sense, its evolution, focus what it constitutes as an academic enterpriseand locus where in the academic enterprise it is located are conditioned by the political nature of the state where it is found.
Richard Stillman, the-author of the basic text in Public Administration Education used in the introduction of many Public Administration programs in America, discusses six future directions that are part of the current theoretical dialogue in public administration Stillman,pp.The public administration is instrumental in its operation, and is expected to carry out politically determined goals and values.
Above all, public administration is part of the web of governance, deriving its form and substance from public policy. Thus, the most important attribute of public administration is its place in the.
Digital Technologies and Public Policy (MPA) This MPA degree prepares future leaders and decision makers working in policy to meet the challenges and opportunities presented by today's fast-evolving digital technologies.
and provide us with valuable insights about the development of MPA education. In the public administration literature, scholars have recognized local public managers’ participation in the local policy-making process and criticized.
Founded in , the UTSA Master of Public Administration (M.P.A.) degree program serves more than enrolled students annually. The mission of the M.P.A. program is to educate responsible leaders and ethical public servants through a curriculum that incorporates research and practice. between higher education and elementary and secondary education (e.g., age and maturity of students), postsecondary institutions have a broader and longer history with online learning than elementary and secondary schools.
education in the United States, it is the intention ofthis paper to explore the history ofits evolution as well as the nature ofits three-foldperspectives and provide a pedagogical framework for public administration education in the African context.