From plants or animals, you need it. You may know what foods contain protein, but have you ever wondered what protein actually is—and why you need to eat it every day? Protein, of course, is a vital component of a healthy diet.
They have gained remarkable interest during the past decades and some of them have undergone clinical tests[ 2337 ]. They are intrinsically biocompatible, biodegradable and non-immunogenic.
The natural surface can protect encapsulated cargos from inactivation with a remarkably prolonged and controllable lifespan in comparison to the synthetic carriers. These make them a valuable systemic drug release platform[ 38 ]. Several approaches have been developed to load agents in RBCs or attach them onto the outer surfaces by either chemical or physical methods Figure 1.
The agents can then diffuse into the cells. This method has been used in the encapsulation of enzymes, nucleic acid and anionic drugs such as diclofenac sodium [ 40 - 42 ]. However, this method may disrupt the cell membrane and result in a partial and irreversible deterioration of the structural integrity[ 43 ].
Phosphatidylserine PSa signal to mononuclear-phagocyte system for uptake, was found to be externalized after electroporation treatment[ 41 ].
This would result in the reticuloendothelial system RES phagocytosis and greatly shorten the blood circulation time. According to the fabrication procedures, the methods are divided into hypotonic dilution, hypotonic pre-swelling, osmotic pulse, hypotonic hemolysis and the most often used hypotonic dialysis[ 2223 ].
Although the details of the methods may vary, they are all based on the principle that RBCs swell in hypotonic solution followed by the formation of pores with diameter range from 10 to nm.
The increase in membrane permeability allows soluble agents to diffuse into cells driven by the concentration gradient. Then the pores are resealed under an isotonic condition to form drug-loaded RBCs. Hemoglobin-free red blood cells can also be prepared by this method[ 49 ]. Incubation time, pH value, temperature and cargo concentration could all affect the encapsulation efficiency EE in RBCs[ 22 ].
Compared with negatively charged groups citrate, thioglycolic acid and 4-mercaptobenzoic acidamine groups 6-thioguanine2-mercaptoethanol or 1-propanthiol surface modifications are more effective to induce the incorporation of Au NPs into the RBCs. Similar to electroporation, osmosis-based methods may also cause the disruption of cell membrane with some unrecoverable structure damage in different degrees.
The loss of important cellular constituents such as hemoglobin and cytoskeleton via the pore is another fact that cannot be ignored as the physiological functions and the structural integrity of RBCs may have been impaired. This may increase the opportunity of being recognized and cleared by the human body[ 43 ].
The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a specialized macromolecular complex dedicated to the delivery of protein effectors into both eukaryotic and bacterial cells. History of science timeline for biology, chemistry, physics, geology, mathematics, and philosophy of science. This includes evolution, biochemistry, molecular biology. Abstract. Natural cells have been explored as drug carriers for a long period. They have received growing interest as a promising drug delivery system (DDS) until recently along with the development of biology and medical science.
Figure 1 Schematic illustration of drug loading methods for RBC. Click on the image to enlarge. Some membrane active drugs, such as primaquine, hydrocortisone, vinblastine and chlorpromazine, can be encapsulated in RBCs by incubation directly[ 22 ].
This cellular hitchhiking strategy significantly improved the blood pharmacokinetics of the NPs and opened a new horizon for applications[ 50 - 53 ]. Recently, a simple membrane painting method was used to load targeting or therapeutic ligands onto the RBC surface[ 54 - 58 ].
As a result, IgG was retained in RBCs with maximum membrane retention and long-circulation property in vivo. The method may be further used to bind other smaller ligands, such as Fab fragment, single-chain antibody or small peptide, for in vivo applications.
In general, this method contains a series of strategies to load cargoes by physical or chemical approaches. Avidin-biotin bridge is a common way to conjugate bioactive agents on the surface of RBCs[ 16234859 ]. Subsequently, the bioactive agents were conjugated with avidin following by incubation with biotin modified RBCs.
Some antibodies and peptides were also used as the bridge to accomplish the attachment of targeting antigens or immune antigens to RBC surface[ 5758 ].
The bispecific antibodies, which were composed of targeting antigens human IgG or dinitrophenylated bovine gamma globulin and human RBC complement receptor, were used to rapidly and stably modify RBC for removing pathogenic antigens associated with infectious disease[ 58 ].
The captured OVA amount was up to 1.
This approach provided an effective biomolecular modification to RBCs with minimum damage from any chemical reaction or organic solvent.Summary of Creatine Primary Information, Benefits, Effects, and Important Facts.
What is creatine? Creatine is a molecule produced in the body. It stores high-energy phosphate groups in the form of phosphocreatine. Thus, this genetic "accident" in a Silurian fish enabled the random generator of the adaptive immune system to develop.
This "invention" conferred a tremendous selective advantage in fighting off infective threats, so that the offspring of this fish pushed all other then-existing vertebrates into extinction, with exception of some lamprey and hagfish.
PubMed comprises more than 28 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites. Applications γδ T-cell based cancer immunotherapy.
In , Paul Ehrlich proposed vaccines against cancer, which was the first suggestion . History of science timeline for biology, chemistry, physics, geology, mathematics, and philosophy of science. This includes evolution, biochemistry, molecular biology.
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