History[ edit ] The oldest classical Greek and Latin writing had little or no space between words and could be written in boustrophedon alternating directions.
There is, however, one exception: CSS—Unicode Bidi Control Translation, Text Reordering The final order of characters within each bidi paragraph is the same as if the bidi control codes had been added as described for unicode-bidi abovemarkup had been stripped, and the resulting character sequence had been passed to an implementation of the Unicode bidirectional algorithm for plain text that produced the same line-breaks as the styled text.
Note that bidi control codes in the source text are still honored, and might not correspond to the document tree structure. Bidi Treatment of Atomic Inlines In this process, replaced elements with display: This is so that, in case the replaced element falls back to rendering inlined text content, its bidi effect on the surrounding text is consistent with its replaced rendering.
All other atomic inline-level boxes are treated as neutral characters always.
Paragraph Breaks Within Embeddings and Isolates If an inline box is broken around a bidi paragraph boundary e. In other words, any embedding levels, isolates, or overrides started by the box are closed at the paragraph break and reopened on the other side of it.
Reordering-induced Box Fragmentation Since bidi reordering can split apart and reorder text that is logically contiguous, bidirectional text can cause an inline box containing such text to be split and its fragments reordered within a line.
For each line box, UAs must take the fragments of each inline box and assign the margins, borders, and padding in visual order not logical order. For example, in the horizontal-tb writing mode: Analogous rules hold for vertical writing modes. The box-decoration-break property can override this behavior to draw box decorations on both sides of each fragment.
Introduction to Vertical Writing This subsection is non-normative. Unlike languages that use the Latin script which are primarily laid out horizontally, Asian languages such as Chinese and Japanese can be laid out vertically. The Japanese example below shows the same text laid out horizontally and vertically.
In the horizontal case, text is read from left to right, top to bottom. For the vertical case, the text is read top to bottom, right to left.
Indentation from the left edge in the left-to-right horizontal case translates to indentation from the top edge in the top-to-bottom vertical case.
Comparison of vertical and horizontal Japanese: The change from horizontal to vertical writing can affect not just the layout, but also the typesetting.
For example, the position of a punctuation mark within its spacing box can change from the horizontal to the vertical case, and in some cases alternate glyphs are used. Vertical text that includes Latin script text or text from other scripts normally displayed horizontally can display that text in a number of ways.
For example, Latin words can be rotated sideways, or each letter can be oriented upright: Examples of Latin in vertical Japanese: Mac Fan, Decemberp.
Mixture of vertical and horizontal elements Vertical text layouts also need to handle bidirectional text layout; clockwise-rotated Arabic, for example, is laid out bottom-to-top.If it’s a longer paper, a good place to start is by looking at what each paragraph was about. For example, if you write a paper about zoo animals, each paragraph would probably be about one particular animal.
CSS Writing Modes Level 3 defines CSS support for various international writing modes, such as left-to-right (e.g. Latin or Indic), right-to-left (e.g. Hebrew or Arabic), bidirectional (e.g.
mixed Latin and Arabic) and vertical (e.g.
Asian scripts). CSS is a language for describing the rendering of. Paragraph 4 Philip was having a difficult morning. He got into trouble on the school bus, and the bus driver yelled at him and all the kids laughed.
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